Windows 10 saw the introduction of a enw Settings app, which has been improved in every major update. The Settings app is a replacement for the old Control Panel, the applets of which could be accessed from either the command line or from the Run dialog.
The Settings app also allows you to directly open individual settings pages by using a URI. The list of URI's below is for Windows 10 "Creators Update" (version 1704).
Not all dettings pages will be available in every SKU of Windows 10. The notes column details any additional requirements that must be met for a page to be available.
I've hyperlinked all of the options so you can launch them directly from this page.